Most people need a TRV (Temporary Resident Visa) or an eTA (Electronic Travel Authorization) to travel to Canada. (You can click here to find out here whether you can enter Canada with an eTA or not.)
Those who enter Canada with a TRV (if the visa officer does not give a different period of time at the time of entering the country) can stay in the country for a maximum of 6 months. This date is usually written in the passport at the time of entering the country, but if not, this period does not change. Having a visa for 10 years does not change this situation. Long term visas issued for 10 years or according to the passport's expiry date are called 'Multiple Entry' visas. The date printed on your passport as the end date means that you can enter Canada until that date. Of course, if the visa officer at the port of entry approves your entry.
If you need to stay in Canada for more than 6 months, you must apply for a 'Visitor Record' at least 30 days before your visitor status expires. In fact, this application can be made even on the last day, but the time suggested by IRCC is 30 days. Of course, in this application, you must provide a valid reason for your request to extend your stay and provide the necessary information and documents. One of the critical points here is that you must submit proof that you have the financial capacity and you don't need to work during this time. Because people who enter Canada as visitors do not have the right to work. If you make this application before your visitor status expires, you will retain your legal status in Canada until a decision is made for your Visitor Record application. This is called 'implied status'.
If you came to Canada as a student or worker, the situation is different. The document you will use to enter the country is again a TRV, but the document that determines your status in the country is 'study permit' or 'work permit'. In other words, this is the document that determines the duration of your stay in Canada. In this case, even if the TRV printed on your passport expires, you can stay in Canada for the duration of your 'study permit' or 'work permit' and if you want to continue your status, you can apply for an extension. However, for example, Post-Graduate Work Permit (PGWP) is not a work permit type that can be extended, that is, the type of work permit must be changing in order to extend it. It is also important to pay attention to such issues.
So you are here on a 'study permit' or 'work permit' and the TRV printed on your passport has expired. What does it mean? This is not a problem if you are going to stay in Canada or travel to the US only (if you have a valid US visa, of course). But if you are going to travel to Turkey, for example, you need to make a new application for a TRV. You can travel to Turkey but you can not return to Canada without a valid TRV. So, having a valid 'study permit' or 'work permit' is not sufficient for you to re-enter Canada- you must have a valid TRV, that is, a visitor visa.
To summarize, TRV is the entry document to Canada. If you come to Canada as a visitor, you can stay for a maximum of 6 months unless a different decision has been made upon entering the country. It is possible to extend this period by applying for a 'Visitor Record' without leaving the country. If you are a student or a worker, the 'permit' given to you determines your duration of stay. However, anyone wishing to travel outside Canada and return must have a valid TRV. (If they are not from a visa-exempt country.)
Although these applications seem simple, they can sometimes be more complicated than even permanent residence applications. The highest refusal rates are seen in "temporary residence" applications (visitors, students and workers). Therefore, it is critical to know the laws and regulations and make an accurate application. In addition, if the person needs professional support in their application, they must get this support from a Regulated Canadian Immigration Consultant, who is a member of ICCRC.
You can contact us for consultancy and representation service for your visitor visa, visitor record, study permit and work permit application and extension.